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The IUP Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering:
State-of-the-Art in VANETs: The Core of Intelligent Transportation System
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The paper presents a case study for increasing the need of having a reliable road safety technique globally. A brief overview is provided about the Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) technology, which seems to be a highly efficient tool in road safety applications. The paper provides some basic statistical evidences supporting the need for applying the latest state-of-the-art technologies in road safety. It also provides some insights into the new developments going on in the trial field of VANETs. It focuses on the fragmentation problem which occurs usually on highways where vehicles are sparsely placed. Some remedies are suggested to mitigate this aforementioned problem and a state-of-the-art optimization technique—Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)—is presented for improving the routing capabilities of a VANET network. Finally, some suggestions are enlisted that can be conducted in this field to improve VANET efficiency.

 
 

Improvements in technology is accompanied by the challenges offered by these technologies, for instance, using modern technology, a large number of improved automobiles are manufactured at a very fast pace but this in turn poses a great challenge to manage these automobiles on the roads. Acknowledging this fact, the United Nations has proclaimed 2011-2020 as the Decade of Action for Road Safety. In 2009, there were 21,200,140 four-wheelers and 82,402,105 two-wheelers on Indian roads which in turn is estimated to be 4,109,592 km with a contribution of 66,754 km by highways and main roads (Dalal, 2011; and World Road Statistics, 2011). The most astonishing fact is that during the same year, there were around 4.9 lakh road accidents in India among which 1,42,511 accidents occurred on national highways, which resulted in deaths of 1,25,660 people and injured more than 5 lakh persons of which 45,222 deaths and 1,52,816 injured people were accounted on national highways (Road Accidents in India, 2011; and Dalal et al., 2012). These figures show that one road accident occurs every minute, and one road accident death occurs every four minutes in India, which presents a horrifying situation. All these statistics are summarized in Table 1. As evident from Table 1, national and state highways have a major share (53.15%) in road accidents in India. Globally also, the situation is almost the same.

 
 
 

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Journal, Fragmentation problem, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Road safety, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)