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The IUP Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering:
A Study and Analysis of Impact of Mobile Phone Radiation on the ECG Pattern of Human Heart
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This study is conducted to devise the effects of mobile phone radiation on the pattern of Electrocardiograph (ECG) of a normal (who is not diseased in any way) human. The conjectural experiment guided us through varied aspects of ECG and AcqKnowledge of BIOPAC Systems, Inc. With the help of this software, a proficient ECG was carried out for four subjects in the age group of 18-23 years under controlled settings. The experiment was done for five different cases, i.e., when the mobile phone is kept close to the subject in his hand, when the mobile phone is hooked for charging and the subject is using it, when the mobile phone is kept on vibration mode in the hand of the subject, when the subject is attending a call and when the mobile phone is kept away from anywhere near proximity of the subject. The aftermaths of the processing done over the data received states that using phone while being put on charge is not healthy. This also implicates the association of affected bioelectrical activity of brains and hearts due to excessive use of mobile phone. Further, the new research shows that biological effects are possible without any warming of tissues which impose the current radiation exposure levels.

 
 

Human beings are bioelectrical systems. Our hearts and brains are regulated by internal bioelectrical signals. Environmental exposures to artificial Electromagnetic Field (EMF) can interact with fundamental biological processes in the human body (Tamer et al., 2009). In today’s world, everyone is exposed to two types of EMFs: (1) Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields from electrical and electronic appliances and power lines; and (2) Radio frequency radiation from wireless devices such as cell phones and cordless phones, cellular antennas and towers, and broadcast transmission towers. However, concern about human exposure to radio frequencies is not new (Ayeni et al., 2011). The development and application of devices that emit radio frequency radiation have significantly increased the quality of life throughout the world. Due to widespread use of the Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications mobile phones, they have become indispensable as communication tools. But also, the proliferation has been accompanied by the people’s fear of potential adverse effects. Since Electrocardiograph (ECG) tells us about the behavior of human heart under various critical conditions, we opted to take this as a measure for estimating the effects of these radiations. A 12-lead ECG portraits different attributes about different facets of heart which outlooks the functionality of those areas in a broader sense. This could better be depicted through a diagrammatical view of an ECG wave for different regions of human heart (Figure 1). Electrocardiography is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin (Figure 2). Electrode leads on the chest wall are able to detect electrical impulses that are generated by the heart (Wiki. Electrocardiography). The basic principle of the ECG is that stimulation of a muscle alters the electrical potential of muscle fibers. Cardiac cells, unlike other cells, have a property known as automaticity, which is the capacity to spontaneously initiate impulses (www.inmo.ie). These are then transmitted from cell to cell by gap junctions that connect cardiac cells to each other. The electrical impulses spread through the muscle cells because of changes in ions between intracellular and extracellular fluids. This is referred to as action potential. The primary ions involved are potassium, sodium and calcium. The action potential is the potential for action created by the balance between electrical charges (positive and negative) of ions on either side of the cell membrane. When the cells are in a resting state, the insides are negatively charged compared to the outsides. Membrane pumps act to maintain this electrical polarity (negative charge) of the cardiac cells. Contraction of the heart muscle is triggered by depolarization, which causes the internal negative charge to be lost transiently. However, following depolarization, the cardiac cells return again to their resting charge, known as repolarization. These waves of depolarization and repolarization represent an electrical current and can be detected by placing electrodes on the surface of the body. After the current has spread from the heart through the body, the changes are picked up by the ECG machine and the activity is recorded on previously sensitized paper (www.inmo.ie). The ECG is therefore a graphic representation of the electrical activity in the heart. The current is transmitted across the ECG machine at the selected points of contact of the electrode with the body. Also, it has been found that the main areas of interest are lead V5 and lead V6, as they tell us about the rate at which the oxygenated blood gets out of the heart to various parts of the body. Also, lead V5 and lead V6 show a large net positive QRS because these leads overlie the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle, which has large muscle mass undergoing depolarization.

 
 
 

Depolarization, Repolarization, Electrocardiograph (ECG), Electromagnetic Field (EMF), Heart Rate (HR), Blood Pressure (BP)