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The IUP Journal of Mechanical Engineering
Process Parameter Optimization for Sand Inclusion Defect in Furan No-Bake Casting by Grey Relational Analysis
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Occurrence of defect in any process is the ultimate limitation of the process. Furan No-Bake (FNB) casting process also faces the same problem. To find and minimize the conditions for acquiring least casting defects is very critical. Trial-and-error method was the normal method for minimizing defects. But due to disadvantages like being expensive, time-consuming and uncertainty involved in the process, this method costs too much to the industry. The goal of an organization is to optimize the usage of resources to improve productivity. In this paper, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) has been applied to minimize the FNB casting defects for optimizing the process parameters of FNB casting process. The process parameters are selected on the basis of rigorous research and on the basis of data collection and survey from different industries. The highest and lowest values of different process parameters were collected from Krislur Castomech Pvt. Ltd.a foundry in Bhavnagar district of Gujarat, India. The main casting defect considered to minimize is sand inclusion.

 
 

Furan type resin binders were introduced in the 1950s as an acid catalyzed no-bake furan binder system. In the 1980s, furan resin became the largest resin binder consumed, and presently, it is the largest selling no-bake system. Furan No-Bake (FNB) is a simple two-part binder system made up of an acid catalyst and a reactive type resin (http://www.mancusochemicals.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Furan-Binder-Use.pdf). It can be utilized for making all types of metal castings in all sizes. The amount of no-bake binder is taken usually 0.7%-1.0% based on sand and the levels of catalyst vary from 30% to 35% based on binder weight. FNB castings are in a trending demand of global industries due to extreme unique properties of high resistance to minimize the defects in sand/metal interface, excellent dimensional stability and superior shakeout with thermal or mechanical reclamation (Sarkar, 2014; and Pathak et al., 1998). These properties of material are constantly being optimized. The results of research on FNB with topics from base, i.e., properties of recycling, can be found and analyzed in a varied range of publications available worldwide (Andrade et al., 2005). Due to the development of modern technologies, industries are striving for quality and its development. FNB casting is a form of casting and also it possesses certain casting defects. These castings are termed in different forms by different researchers. There are multiple factors that play a role in contributing to cast defects, so it is impossible to eradicate such defects. However, minimization of certain defects is possible. In current times, casting defects are analyzed by certain tools like design of experiment and through rules, historical data analysis, ishikawa charts, etc. The analysis of the casting data is done with certain optimization tools like ANOVA or taguchi method. These methods have given satisfactory results (Lalwani et al., 2008). However, to save time and money, the concept of simulation is growing globally nowadays (Dabade and Bhedasgaonkar, 2013; and Ireland et al., 2002).

 
 

Mechanical Engineering Journal,Sand inclusion, Furan No-Bake (FNB) casting, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA)