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The IUP Journal of International Relations :
The Iran Nuclear Deal: Is It Hurting Global Nuclear Order?
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The Iran nuclear deal, which was concluded after years of intense negotiations, provides a framework for addressing its controversial nuclear program. The agreement cuts off Iran’s every pathway to a nuclear weapon by placing serious restrictions on its nuclear program and putting in place an unprecedented and robust inspection and verification regime. Though the non-proliferation experts have hailed the agreement for its non-proliferation commitments, the future of the agreement remains uncertain because of Trump administration’s vehement criticism against the deal. If the deal collapses because of US withdrawal, it could lead to major non-proliferation crises in the Middle East.

 
 
 

The Iran nuclear deal, also known as Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), is a nuclear arms control agreement reached between Iran and E3/EU+3 (China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States and the high representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy) on July 14, 2015 after more than two years of serious, multilateral negotiations. The agreement aims to roll back Iran’s nuclear program and to block its pathway to nuclear proliferation. Though Iran is a signatory to Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it has not lived up to its international obligations by carrying out illicit nuclear activities making the international community to impose sanctions on it, which had a devastating effect on the Iranian economy. In a report on Iran’s nuclear program released on December 2, 2015, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) concluded that “Iran had pursued a nuclear weapons program prior to 2003, including a ‘coordinated range of activities, relevant to the development of a nuclear explosive device’….[A]lthough Tehran’s organized nuclear weapons program ended in 2003, some activities continued through 2009”.1 The National Intelligence Estimate’s (NIE) report on Iran’s nuclear program released by the United States in 2007 also made an identical assessment that “Iran halted its nuclear weapons programme in fall of 2003” but maintained that the program still poses proliferation threat.2 To address Iran’s controversial nuclear program and to ensure that its nuclear program remains exclusively peaceful, a number of diplomatic proposals were devised between 2005 and 2013, the latest being the Joint Plan of Action reached on November 24, 2013 between Iran and E3/EU+3. The Joint Plan of Action remained in force till October 2015 when it was replaced by JCPOA.

 
 
 

International Relations Journal,What JCPOA Intends to Do, Inspection and Monitoring, International Humanitarian Law require,Gaza Strip (GS) and the West Bank (WB).