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The IUP Journal of Knowledge Management :
Triple Management Theory and Agility, Technology Interoperability and Flexibility Challenges in a Specified Domain†
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The rate at which internet changes fast in turn changes most of business arena. As a result, most of the workers are exposed to new responsibilities and procedures at an ever-increasing rate to cope with the process and manage the changes. This implies that the workers need to be trained and retrained. Also, it would surely incur additional cost implications for the business. This paper avers that technology and processes are not agile and flexible enough to allow interoperability between the technology itself, people and process. Based on this, the paper applies a combination of process-centric, objective-centric and human- centric management theory of process change caused by smart era evolution and revolution in order to cope with technology agility and flexibility. The approach is applied to workflow orchestration in blacksmith industry and determines its development effort, knowledge spillover and knowledge retention on the course of interoperability using proximity approach. The approach is scalable and easy to apply to evaluate workflow development effort. The implication of this work is that interoperability and technology flexibility and its agility can be supported at management level and workflow effort can be estimated more precisely, helping to estimate the benefit of interoperability of workflow through the business process measurement.

 
 
 

Technology, people, process and information are the important building blocks for creating a successful Information Technology (IT) infrastructure (Ayachitula et al., 2007) in the fourth industrial revolution. Technology can be defined as a product of applied knowledge, innovation and creativity. The businesses or companies must be willing to apply knowledge, innovate constantly, revisit and improve their business practices to remain profitable in the light of challenges like global competition and cost reduction (Pflanzl and Vossen, 2013). A company that is not innovating falls behind because the economy is a six-lane highway and the speed limits are going up each year. In all management challenges, IS should continue to adapt to the changing business practices and needs (Nurcan and Hicheur, 2005). In order to survive in today’s competitive world, organizations need to constantly change and adapt themselves to new technologies so as to hold a competitive edge among competitors (Xhafa et al., 2017).

Business process management (BPM) system is popular in business environments as an emerging technology for delivering services to customers (Yahya et al., 2012). But in BPM, process modeling is a troublesome task for a designer who has little or insufficient experience (Yahya et al., 2012). Also, in BPM, there is divergence between process models and execution reality, and the failure to leverage ideas for innovation held by process end-users (Schmidt and Nurcan, 2009; Bruno et al., 2011; and Pflanzl and Vossen, 2013). Pflanzl and Vossen (2013) anticipated that it is vital to address the problem of BPM from the perspective of entire business community involved in BPM task via social software. Social software allows process end-users to manage their process knowledge without relying on technical experts and long-running improvement cycles. In contrast, most of the modeling social software and their models are too difficult to use or customized by untrained individuals. BPM proves that it is the method that builds the foundation to master current and future challenges in management (vom Brocke et al., 2014). It is amazing that BPM adoption and its uses remain disjointed and there is little agreement regarding its right scoping (Recker et al., 2010; and vom Brocke et al., 2014).

 
 
 

Knowledge Management Journal,Business process management (BPM) system, Interoperability/Collaboration Challenges, Triple Management Theory.