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The IUP Journal of English Studies
ISSN: 0973-3728
A ‘peer reviewed’ journal indexed on Elsevier,
and also distributed by EBSCO and Proquest Database

March'18

Previous Issues

The IUP Journal of English Studies, an academic initiative of the IUP, is an intellectual vehicle for informed critical evaluations of various areas of literature, English Language Teaching, translation studies relating to emerging and established genres. A fresh and invigorating evaluation of the contributions of writers and their significant writings are on offer in the Journal.

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  • British Literature
  • American Literature
  • Commonwealth Literature
  • Indian Writing in English
  • English Language Teaching
  • Comparative Literature
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Metaphor, Force Dynamics, and Reactance in Postcolonial Literature: A Comparative Study
Stripping Illusions and Mirroring Realities: Ed Bullins, the Absurdist
Representation of Existential Nightmare in the Novels of Andrea Levy
Tennyson’s Early Lady Poems: Maintaining Male Dominance with Female Masks?
Ecocriticism in Indian Fiction
The Concept of Phoneme in Abhinavagupta’s Tantraloka
Vasant, the Muse of Sanskrit Poets: An Exploration
A Comparison of Teacher Feedback Versus Students’ Joint Feedback on EFL Students’ Composition
Contemporary Eliotian Indian-English Poet P C K Prem
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Contents
(March 2018)

Metaphor, Force Dynamics, and Reactance in Postcolonial Literature: A Comparative Study

--Roghayeh Farsi

The paper takes identity as a conceptual metaphor in the construction of which psychosocial force dynamics are at work. Identity is thus approached as a site of power struggle between the Agonist and Antagonists. Three works are selected which are both generically and geopolitically different: J M Coetzee’s Foe (a novel), Richard Wright’s “Big, Black, Good Man” (a short story), and Billy Marshall-Stoneking’s “Passage” (a poem). The analytic and comparative methodology of the study allows investigation of the psycho-behavioral (re)action between the Agonist and the Antagonist in the selected works. The type of Agonist’s reactance behavior—namely, inertia, resistance, skepticism, and aggression—is examined and discussed in each work. The study contends that while Foe poses a narrative challenge, “Big, Black, Good Man” represents a physical challenge, and “Passage” brings the Agonist and the Antagonist in a mythic-historical challenge. The common reactance behavior between the Agonists of the three works is inertia. It is concluded that while in psychology, inertia is a state of helplessness, in a postcolonial context, it can signify the Agonist’s resistance to the colonial’s psychosocial forces.

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Stripping Illusions and Mirroring Realities: Ed Bullins, the Absurdist

--K A Geetha

The African American theatre of the 1960s abounds with many revolutionary playwrights. While African American dramatists like Amiri Baraka wrote revolutionary plays in the literal sense, for Ed Bullins, his contemporary, revolution was not in style and technique but in theme and character. While most of his contemporaries still had the Euro-American audience in mind, Bullins was the first to exclude them from his theatre. His plays were written for and about African Americans. Most of his plays portray men and women caught up in a world where nothing changes. The illusions of hope, which make them sustain in their barren and sterile world, prove in the end to be no less than dreams that are unattainable. None of them are able to reconcile to reality and are forced to retain the illusion, which is their only sustenance to continue their lives. This circular plot, which is one of the main elements of the Theatre of the Absurd, is found in most of Bullins’s plays. This paper discusses the theme of absurdity in Bullins’s Clara’s Ole Man and Goin’ a Buffalo.

Article Price : Rs.50

Representation of Existential Nightmare in the Novels of Andrea Levy

--Swarnita Sharma and Jaya Dwivedi

The aim of this paper is to highlight the issue of existential crisis in Afro-Caribbean as depicted by Andrea Levy in her novels. Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existence. It is a philosophy that interprets human existence in the world and stresses its concreteness and its problematic temperament. Existentialism proposes that man is full of anxiety and despair with no meaning in his life. Levy, in all her novels, discusses existential themes and thereby brings forward the problems of dread, anxiety, quest for belonging, alienation, and lack of freedom, which present her novels as an existentialist nightmare. She experienced the transitional period when white Britain came to know of its multiracial identity coinciding with a period of unrest. Her father was one of the first immigrants who came to England. So we find a firsthand study of the sociopsychological and political condition of the people affected by that historical event in the writings of Levy.

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Tennyson’s Early Lady Poems: Maintaining Male Dominance with Female Masks?

--Rajni Singh

Tennyson’s lady poems, composed during the period 1827-1842, are intriguing even today. They reflect his subtle engagement with homely virtues and feminine traits. Tennyson was fully aware of the changing roles of women, but he did not challenge the Victorian codes, and perhaps this is why he infused the “sphere ideology.” This paper interprets Tennysonian heroines in the context of the Victorian Age and explores the poet’s recognition of what a masculine perspective might offer to an understanding of women’s nature, role, and influence. The paper also shows how these unhappy solitary female figures stand for the poet’s own grief, and his hiding behind female masks may, in fact, be a way to take recourse to a self-created social order.

Article Price : Rs.50

Ecocriticism in Indian Fiction

--Sufina K and Bhuvaneswari R

Ecocriticism, a literary theory, is crucial in the current scenario, as reading a literary work under ecocritical lens is one of the functions of ecocriticism. It not only magnifies the works that appreciate nature but also explores the linguistic and literary exemplifications of the environment. Writing about ecology and environment is documented in ancient Indian literature, hence ecocriticism is not new to Indian literary context. Ecological balance is vividly represented in the Sangam (Tamil) literature, for instance, detailing of Aintinai (five landscapes). In contemporary Indian writing, there seems to be an imbalance between fiction and nonfiction environmental writings. A focus on ecological imbalance due to urbanization and westernization is seen in many unexplored Indian novels. The number of nonfictional writings famed for their “green” concern is quite high compared to fiction. This paper reviews the literature on ecocritical studies and brings out the ecological aspects in Indian fiction.

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The Concept of Phoneme in Abhinavagupta’s Tantraloka

--Amitabh Vikram Dwivedi

The paper presents the concept of phoneme in Abhinavagupta’s Tantraloka. In doing so, the paper also discusses some concepts of sound from contemporary linguistics along with a few ancient Indian texts. This combination of the physics and the metaphysics of sound in the paper not only provides an interesting description of the concept of phoneme in Abhinavaguta’s Tantraloka but it also makes the entire discussion more lively and contemporary. Further, the paper also sheds light on the concept of sound as conceived by ancient Indian philosophers. Though their theories are grounded on religion and spiritualism, the paper tries to establish that they still have a scientific basis.

Article Price : Rs.50

Vasant, the Muse of Sanskrit Poets: An Exploration

--G R K Murty

As the chilling winter recedes and the sun emerges brightly, skies turn clear and blue, and fine breeze blows from the south laden with mist through the fluttering lush green young mango leaves. Bright flowers of different hues bloom all around, while the dancing bees greet them with their sweet drone. Suddenly nature turns wondrously beautiful, suggesting the arrival of vasant—spring. And with it, certain ineffably touching gaiety comes along evoking romanticism all around. Vasant, the driving force of life painted with a fiery palette of the reds, golds, oranges, and yellows of its flowers, kindled the flame of passion among Sanskrit poets, resulting in excellent poetry that articulated the emotions of longing, desiring, pining, etc. Being the most picturesque season, it became the natural canvas for their portraying the sringara rasa. This paper is an attempt to capture that sringara—romanticism and its beauty—expounded in classical poetry.

Article Price : Rs.50

A Comparison of Teacher Feedback Versus Students’ Joint Feedback on EFL Students’ Composition

--Maryam Kazemi, Shirin Abadikhah, and Mahmood Dehqan

The purpose of this study is to compare teacher-written feedback with joint feedback of student reviewers after intra-feedback session. A group of twenty-one university students and an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teacher participated in the study. From the results, it was found that both teacher and students were concerned with surface-level errors during peer feedback and indicated less engagement with other aspects of the composition such as content and organization. Moreover, the analysis of the comments indicated that the most frequent feedback type provided by both teacher and students was “directive” and the least frequent one was “summary.” The findings of the study suggest that incorporation of intra-feedback practice into EFL writing instruction can help teachers change the individualized learning atmosphere by establishing an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect. Furthermore, joint feedback of reviewers provided during the process of intra-feedback is to some extent similar to the teacher’s feedback; therefore, it can be concluded that intra-feedback can serve as a complementary practice in writing courses.

Article Price : Rs.50

Contemporary Eliotian Indian-English Poet P C K Prem

--Rama Rao V V B

Prem the poet is perturbed and tossed in turbulence. Almost all the poems are about the sordid human condition in the modern age where cultures of the hoary times have been undergoing intense and not good change. Flirt, frigid, uncertain are the key words applicable almost everywhere in the milieu, becoming desperately the same everywhere. Efforts at peacemaking are always half-hearted and feckless. Solutions arrived at are concocted for a brief living. Men are lonely, and each wants to peel off the armor of the other. Here is a stiff-necked and straight-backed conglomeration of people. Rock and pillar edicts of long forgotten eras had something to talk about men and matters and things done or undone. They are best forgotten, for they may hurt modernity. The poet talks of man who keeps off, wants to be a spectator or a compere with no great responsibility. The poet tries to comfort man from within. “As I Fly” speaks of knowledge and not of wisdom even indirectly. The poet thinks of the wisest of the wise and ancient works about Krishna, Hanuman, Aranyakas, and Samhitas. “Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold,” a poet said earlier. Eliotian poets are worried that the man half dead is breathing hard. He observes with his mind’s eye that those who died yesterday are living today, if only to be quoted or masqueraded as. This is dangerous, not merely frightful, for the souls seeking good bodies could not be born again. Prem’s poetry is about perplexities, a deep and healthy sense of values, and the objectives and values compel the poet to look around knowing what is inward for the righteous. Cerebration leads him to the end of the tunnel, opening into bleak darkness. He finds learning and knowledge only as fossils. Knowledge and wisdom envisaged and shown in our epics and scriptures are stones hardened now.

Article Price : Rs.50

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.

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