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The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development
ISSN: 0973-2659
A ‘peer reviewed’ journal indexed on Cabell’s Directory,
and also distributed by EBSCO and Proquest Database

March'18

Previous Issues

The IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development is a quarterly journal that focuses on entrepreneurship mindset, development of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship opportunity, motivation and case studies.

Information to Authors
  • Entrepreneurship Mindset
  • Entrepreneurship Opportunity
  • Motivation
  • Case Studies
  • What Motivates Entrepreneurs and Can their Motivation be Influenced?
  • The Entrepreneurial Ethic of the Sikhs: Religious Signaling and the Importance of Social Capital for Trust and Exchange
  • Critical Issue of Starting Entrepreneurship in Kazakhstan
  • Social Wealth Creation via Experimental Entrepreneurial Philanthropy
  • Case Study - Philip F Anschutz: Entrepreneur with a "Contrarain Strategy"
  • Research Summary - Entrepreneurship as a Non-profit Seeking Activity
  • Book Review - We Got Fired! ..And it's the Best Thing That Ever Happened to us
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Career Intention of Undergraduate Students: An Application of Theory of Planned Behavior
Risk Perception and Entrepreneurial Career Choice: A Comparative Analysis of First Generation Entrepreneurs and Service Holders
Sanergy: Sustainable Sanitation
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Contents
(March 2018)

Career Intention of Undergraduate Students: An Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

--Lahiru Gunawardena, Dilini Hemachandra and Sarath S Kodithuwakku

Career choices of people have vital implications for the economy. While the growing number of entrepreneurs and a booming private sector are considered essential for the growth of an economy, a large public sector is considered a burden. Degree programs attempt to include more entrepreneurship education in the curriculums. Therefore, understanding what influences career choices is important. This study investigates students’ career intention to work in the public sector, private sector and own business startups separately by applying the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) by Ajzen (1991) which describes that intention of a behavior depends on a person’s attitudes, subjective norms and Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC). This study also investigates if the degree program changes the students’ career intention. Further, the influence of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of students on their career intention has been explored. Data was collected from undergraduate students of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Multiple linear regression and ANOVA techniques were used in data analysis. The results reveal that attitudes, subjective norms and PBC have a significant positive relationship with career intention in public and private sectors and own business startups. However, only career intention in private sector is significantly different between the final year and first year students. Career intention, attitudes, subjective norms and PBC towards private sector show a significant difference between males and females but not for business startups. Attitude related to career intention in the public sector shows a significant difference between urban and rural students. Career intention in private sector and attitudes and PBC towards private sector have a significant difference between urban and rural students. Only subjective norms are significantly different between urban and rural students with respect to business startups.

Risk Perception and Entrepreneurial Career Choice: A Comparative Analysis of First Generation Entrepreneurs and Service Holders

--Arnab Banerjee and P K Jain and Service Holders

The process of choosing one’s career such as whether to become an entrepreneur or otherwise, has been subject to a lot of research, especially in the area of decision making. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) has perhaps been the single most referred approach in understanding such decisions. However, there have been numerous cases where this does not hold good such as for the people who do not consciously intend to become an entrepreneur but find themselves becoming an ‘accidental entrepreneur’ (Fitzsimmons and Douglas, 2010). The current paper attempts to incorporate the idea of risk perception of a person as an explanation of such choices. The study introduced the DOSPERT scale (Weber et al., 2002) to a set of first generation entrepreneurs (test group) and service holder (control group), to understand if there is any significant difference between the two groups, based on which some out of sample cases can be identified. The results of the study confirm significant difference through logistic regression modeling and was able to identify 66% cases correctly based on only six generic risk perception variables and a few other demographic variables. Thus, it is established that generic risk perception may be added to the TPB model to significantly improve the model in accurately identifying entrepreneurial career choices.

Case Study
Sanergy: Sustainable Sanitation

-- Geeta Singh and Indu Perepu

The sanitation crisis is a major challenge the world is facing, with 2.6 billion people lacking decent sanitation facilities. The sanitation problem is more pronounced in underdeveloped countries like Kenya, where more than 8 million people, half of urban population, live in slums. The communal toilets that existed in the slums were not safe for women, and the unsanitary practices left the environment highly polluted. To address these problems, three graduates from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) came up with a business model, and thus the company Sanergy was started. The business model included vertically integrated waste management system of five parts—build, franchise, collect, convert and transfer. The company manufactured toilets that were franchised to local entrepreneurs, and the waste collected was converted into fertilizers and electricity. The pay per use toilets provided income for the entrepreneurs and the company. These toilets improved hygiene in the slums while providing employment to several local people. People’s health improved and so did the quality of life among slum dwellers. For Sanergy team, a few challenges remained: the model needed to be scaled up and expanded to other countries to address the global sanitation crisis.

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.

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