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Welcome to The IUP Journal of International Relations


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The IUP Journal of International Relations provides informative, insightful, and lively discourse on the latest developments in an ever-changing and increasingly complex world order. The Journal serves as a forum for thought-provoking debate on the most contentious contemporary issues in World Politics. The Journal is dedicated to the stimulation and dissemination of research and scholarship in international affairs.

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On Democratic Disconnection
Securing India’s Interests in Afghanistan: The Pakistan Factor
Indo-Nepal Relations: A Bilateral Paradox
Leading Pan-Africanism and Development: Nigeria’s Role in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)
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(Oct 2017)

On Democratic Disconnection

--Mavrozacharakis Emmanouil and Dimari Georgia

The results of a recent study on the popularity of Western democracy are rather scary. Most respondents have little or no confidence in politics; they distrust the media, justice, and institutions altogether. The most reasonable interpretation of the above results is that there exists a large number of young Europeans who apparently have lost their faith in the political system that surrounds them, in the sense that they no longer hope that it will give them the right and the opportunity to freely unfold their personality. In particular, the new generation wakes up every day with the feeling that democracy has nothing to offer but unsubstantiated hopes. At the same time, there is a growing distrust towards state structures in the sense that a majority of young Europeans feel betrayed by other generations as well as by the system. The findings of surveys depict a weakening of democracy, which is also defined as a democratic disconnect. This means that people are inclining towards authoritarian alternatives. The long-term stability of Western democracies requires more legitimacy at national level not only to provide space for internal policy, but also to ensure respect for social and economic commitments over time.

Securing India’s Interests in Afghanistan: The Pakistan Factor

--Gurpreet Kaur

Traditionally, India has shared close diplomatic, cultural and political relations with the successive governments in Afghanistan. India had close alliance with the erstwhile USSR and thus had an excellent influence in Afghanistan and the adjacent regions. However, Afghanistan has remained the subject of direct influence of both inter-regional and extra-regional powers that led to its constant instability. Since the 9/11 attack, India has been trying hard for energizing its traditional influence in Afghanistan and to some extent has succeeded by entering into several bilateral agreements on diverse issues like defence, technology, trade, medicine, political and cultural exchange, etc. Geostrategically, Afghanistan is vital as it is considered the “gateway to the energy-rich Central Asia”. Hence, the escalating requirement for energy in India could find Central Asia as a better option as long as Afghanistan is politically stable. No doubt, India has gained considerable influence in Afghanistan by becoming one of the largest regional donors for the reconstruction process in the country. However, Pakistan’s involvement in the country is a major obstacle to India due to the long-standing India-Pak rivalry. Furthermore, the former Afghan President Hamid Karzai’s declaration of Pakistan as a twin brother and signing of an MoU on Afghan-Pak Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA) in July 2010, could boost Pakistan’s influence in Afghanistan. Moreover, the Taliban is active in many parts of the country and if it captures power in Afghanistan, the whole atmosphere will be in Pakistan’s favor and hence India’s interests will be at stake. In this context, the paper examines how India’s interests can be protected in Afghanistan under the evolving geostrategic and geopolitical environment, and it also looks for various policy options available to India.

Indo-Nepal Relations: A Bilateral Paradox

--Shabaz Hussain Shah

The Indo-Nepal relations are old, based on historicity of socio-cultural identities. The so-called socio-cultural identities became a well-founded base for the bilateral relationship, solidified through the signing of treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1950. While strengthening their bilateral relationship, the two countries came closer to each other in the arena of political, economic and strategic dimensions. India came forward for maintaining its status and security in Nepal and Nepal tried to attain substantial amount of holistic support. So, the relationship was going on in a confederating manner having a mutual purpose. However, the entente cordiale often moved in a vacillating framework during both the monarchical and post-monarchical periods, the reason being the inability of both the countries to create mutual trust and confidence. While being unreceptive to the changing interests and concerns, the ironical aspect is, the bilateral issues and events unleashed brought down the tone of bilateral relations at their maximal stage of cooperation. No doubt, bilateral initiatives and efforts have often been taken up, but bridging the trust gap remained unsuccessful. Thus, the study endeavors to analyze the Indo-Nepal relations as an exceedingly bilateral paradox. It explores the inadequacies created in harnessing the fruits of bilateral cooperation by scrutinizing the bilateral differences, issues and events.

Leading Pan-Africanism and Development: Nigeria’s Role in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)

--Aliyu Ahmed-Hameed and Sharkdam Wapmuk

The idea behind the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) was initiated by the leaders of Nigeria, South Africa, Senegal, Egypt and Algeria in 2001. This African Union (AU) initiative was conceived as a framework for promoting Africa’s development by addressing key social, economic and political problems. It was rooted in the ideals of Pan-Africanism and set against the backdrop of globalization and commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), now superseded by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The NEPAD initiative integrates the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) as the mechanism through which the governance component of the initiative could be measured and reviewed. Among other leading member states, Nigeria has played a leading role in midwifing the process for the formulation and implementation of the initiative. It was perhaps in recognition of the country’s role that President Obasanjo was appointed as the first Chairman of the Heads of State Implementation Committee (HSIC) of NEPAD. In concrete terms, Nigeria has led other African countries in the process of giving practical form to key NEPAD programs, including the APRM. In addition to being among the first five countries to accede to the APRM, Nigeria has undertaken and completed the peer review process of the APRM. Overall, the country has provided the human and material resources that have been critical to leading the conception, establishment, promotion and ongoing implementation of the NEPAD and APRM initiatives. This paper explores the many fronts on which Nigeria has led and collaborated with other African countries to shape the vision of NEPAD. It opines that Nigeria’s role vis-ŕ-vis NEPAD is in alignment with the country’s long-standing Afro-centric foreign policy and a continuation of belief in Pan-Africanism and collective development of Africa.




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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.