IUP Publications Online
Home About IUP Magazines Journals Books Archives
     
Recommend    |    Subscriber Services    |    Feedback    |     Subscribe Online
 
The IUP Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering:
Time Constant Analysis of First and Second-Order Integrators
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

The paper deals with time-constant analysis of first and second-order integrator systems. In analog system, integrator is considered as a basic building block of various simulating systems, e.g., differential equations, oscillator design and system design. Integrators are advantageous over differentiators in terms of stability criterion and saturation problem and find numerous applications in control system, wave shaping and image filtering. The paper presents an analysis of first and second-order integrators and computes phase and group delay. Simulation results are presented in the form of gain versus frequency curve graphs and phase response is verified.

 
 

A microwave integrator and differentiator can be designed and implemented using transmission line sections, Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technique and appropriate optimization technique (Sanyal et al., 1990; Al-Alaoui, 1995; Jiin-Long and Shen, 1999; Ching et al., 2003; Pradeep Kumar, 2014 and 2015). Conventional Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) has some limitations due to finite gain bandwidth product as Op-Amp limits the accuracy and decreases the operating frequency range (Sarkar et al., 1990; and Pradeep Kumar, 2015). The gain of practical Op-Amp is not finite but the gain depends on frequency. A Current Feedback Amplifier (CFA) provides better solution as compared to conventional operational amplifier in terms of wider gain bandwidth product and accuracy. The time-constant analysis plays an important role in the transient behavior of any system. In this paper, Texas Instrument make TL-082 Op-Amp is used which is superior in terms of minimizing output drift due to offset, bias current and better slew rate performance as compared to conventional 741 Op-Amp. Many researchers have done works in realms of digital integrator using recursive systems. In digital integrator design numerical methods, rectangular, trapezoidal and Simpson are popular in Z-domain analysis (Alaoui, 1993; Bihan, 1993; Alaoui, 1994; Hsue et al., 2006; and Upadhyay and Rakesh, 2013).

 
 
 

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Journal,Differential Equations, Group Delay, Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp), Phase Delay, Time Constant