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The IUP Journal of Accounting Research and Audit Practices
ISSN: 0972-690X
A ‘peer reviewed’ journal indexed on Cabell’s Directory,
and also distributed by EBSCO and Proquest Database


Previous Issues

The IUP Journal of Accounting Research and Audit Practices is a quarterly journal that seeks to provide a platform for cutting edge research in the field of accounting for the benefit of academia and profession at large. IJARAP delivers auditing research articles on financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, accounting standards, taxation, IT-Accounting interface and R&D reporting biases and their consequences.

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  • Financial Accounting
  • Management Accounting
  • Forensic Accounting
  • Accounting Standards
  • Taxation
  • IT Accounting Interfacing
  • Auditing
  • Corporate Disclosures
  • Internal Audit
  • Audit of Financial Statements
  • Audit Education
  • Cost Audit
  • Tax Audit
  • Audit Standards and Assurance
  • Social Audit
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  • Quality Audit
IFRS in India: Financial Implications
in Select Companies
Preview of Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks
Association Between R&D Expenditure and Future Returns of Firms
The Impact of Liquidity and Leverage on Profitability: Evidence from India
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(Jan 2018)

IFRS in India: Financial Implications in Select Companies

--Prashanta Athma and O Bhavani

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) set by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) are adopted by the companies for the preparation of the financial statements. This ensures easy understanding and facilitates comparability of the financial statements of different enterprises of different countries and provides relevant and meaningful information to the various users of the financial statements. In India, the new set of standards which have been converged with IFRS is known as Indian Accounting Standards or Ind AS and will be implemented in India in a phased out manner (Phase 1, 2 and 3) as have been notified by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs on February 25, 2011. The recent announcement made by the Finance Minister in the year 2015 made it mandatory for all the listed companies either to adopt IFRS or converge with effect from the accounting year 2016-17. IFRS is recommended for adoption with several benefits in mind and some of the companies have already adopted new standards and have started reporting accordingly. In this context, the present paper presents an overview of double adoption of IFRS globally by the significant trade forums and the Indian companies which are voluntarily adopting IFRS. It also analyzes the financial implications of adoption of IFRS by the select companies in India. The study is based on secondary data, and Gray comparability index, t-test and F-test are employed for analyzing the data.

Preview of Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks

--Muthuramu P

Annual budgeting procedures largely ignore future costs and benefits of government programs. They involve determining affordability and implementation of policies in the limited time horizon. In the meantime, they also have to fulfill target group demands. Deficit financing, pro-cyclical fiscal stance, time inconsistency, transparency and good governance are important factors to be considered for achieving high quality durable government policies. It further also explores the manner in which it connects with initiatives from other sectors for future budgeting, feasible access and future policy projection of new programs with existing policies. However, Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) approaches involve many fundamental and complex issues, about which much has been written and the debate for which still continues. It is still in its infancy in India with a brief experience at the level of the center. Few states have been found to implement MTEF on a preliminary basis for specific sectors with donor funding. A detailed review of the MTEF is performed in the preent paper and it reveals that fundamentally, MTEF alone cannot deliver efficient public expenditure management. Hence, the paper shows that before designing MTEF, concerns regarding transparency and accountability of public expenditure have to be addressed.

Association Between R&D Expenditure and Future Returns of Firms

--Md Monazir Hussain, Malabika Deo and Santhakumar Shijin

This paper explores the association between a firm’s R&D spending and its future returns. Unlike the US firms, which can only expense R&D, Australian GAAP permits firms to either expense or capitalize their R&D expenditure. India is following Ind AS 38 which requires research expenditure to be recognized as expense and development expenditure to be recognized as an intangible asset if, and only if specified criteria are met, otherwise shall be recognized as an expense. Hence, Indian setting provides for the use of both methods of accounting either expenser or capitalizer. However, less research is available that relates R&D spending of a firm to its future returns. The present study tries to find out the relationship between R&D expenditure and its future returns for R&D active Indian firms. The study is based on 15 years (2001-2015) CMIE data selected from those companies which have R&D activities during the span of the sample period. The market impact of the R&D intensity of all R&D active firms, ‘capitalizers’ and ‘expensers’ has been examined separately. The results suggest that capitalized portion of R&D is capable of generating more future returns. Expensed portion of R&D is not strongly associated with future holding period returns. However, it is observed that the firms who expensed their total R&D expenditures perform better in comparison to the firms who capitalized their total R&D expenditures.

The Impact of Liquidity and Leverage on Profitability: Evidence from India

--Y V Reddy and Parab Narayan

The combination of liquidity variables and capital structure variables has been always a major concern for the financial managers in different companies. The present study attempts to analyze the relationship between liquidity and profitability and investigate the impact of financial leverage and liquidity on the financial performance of select pharmaceutical companies for the period from 2006-07 to 2015-16. The results of the study show that the liquidity of the companies which is reflected in the ongoing ability to pay financial obligations, affects the firm’s capital structure. The increase in liquidity of the firm leads to decrease in the leverage and vice versa. However, no significant impact of leverage on profitability and capital structure is evidenced in the present study.




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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.