The IUP Journal of International Relations
Enhancing India-Baltic States Relations: A Reflection on Past Cultural Interactions, Philosophical Influences, and Mutual Cooperation

Article Details
Pub. Date : April, 2022
Product Name : The IUP Journal of International Relations
Product Type : Article
Product Code : IJIR010422
Author Name :V Lenin Kumar
Availability : YES
Subject/Domain : Arts & Humanities
Download Format : PDF Format
No. of Pages : 18



Every state's foreign policy contains two important elements: (i) hard power, and (ii) soft power. In history, we have seen this since the ancient Roman Empire to represent a hegemon. America has been using both these elements to expand its influence on other countries. In this context, the relationship between India and the Baltic States can be viewed through the prism of soft power diplomacy. This paper analyzes the India-Baltic States relations from the perspective of cultural diplomacy. The relationship between the two is based on freedom, as well as mutual respect of the other's culture, language, and history. This paper traces this relationship to even before India's independence. It discusses in detail the linguistic similarities and cultural exchanges between both sides. The paper also deals with the diplomatic and political relations between the states in question after 1991 that marked the collapse of the USSR. The study enumerates how the cultural exchanges between India and the Baltic States increased many folds in this era as well. Apart from cultural exchanges, trade, interchanges on information and technology, education occupies a considerable part of this interaction.


The relationship between India and the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) goes beyond conventional economic relations. It is deeply rooted in cultural, linguistic, and philosophical interactions between these countries, extending back to centuries. Their relationship resumed after the latter regained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, relations between them have only grown stronger with all the three Baltic States opening their embassies in India. The Indian government is planning to open its embassy in all three Baltic States as well. During this period of cooperation, India has signed several treaties with the Baltic States to foster economic ties. The growing Information Technology (IT) sector and academic research on Indian and Baltic culture are some of the key areas where both sides are looking to boost and improve their collaboration.