The IUP Journal of Telecommunications
Reversible Watermarking with Minimum Pixel Shifting and High Embedding Capacity Using Modified Histogram Shifting Method for All Images

Article Details
Pub. Date : May' 2021
Product Name : The IUP Journal of Telecommunications
Product Type : Article
Product Code : IJTC30521
Author Name : Navnath S Narawade
Availability : YES
Subject/Domain : Arts & Humanities
Download Format : PDF Format
No. of Pages : 10



The histogram shifting method is a well-known method for reversible watermarking. But Hong's method is not suitable for medical and cartoon images. Even Hong's method of histogram shifting has less embedding capacity and does not provide enough quality of general purpose image. The shifting of pixels is more in Hong's method. The improved histogram changing method overcomes all these drawbacks of Hong's method. Generally, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) decreases when embedding capacity increases and shifting pixels increase. But the improved histogram changing method optimizes all these factors. The forward algorithm is more suitable for medical images and backward algorithm is more suitable for cartoon images. The improved histogram changing method shifts required pixel values to right or left by 'n - 1' numbers. 'n - 1' may be 1, 2, 3 and so on. This also increases embedding capacity approximately to n - 1 times maximum number of pixels in the histogram. The complexity of the improved histogram changing method is same as that of Hong's modified histogram shifting method as both scan image only twice


The earliest reference to reversible data embedding we could find is the Barton patent, filed in 1997 (Barton, 1997). In this invention, the bits to be overlaid are compressed and added to the bitstring, which is embedded into the data block. Petitcolas et al. (1999) introduced data hiding initially for copyright protection. Goljan et al. (2001) proposed a two-cycle flipping permutation to assign a watermarking bit in each pixel group. Honsinger et al. (2001) utilized a robust spatial additive watermark


Reversible watermarking, Histogram shifting, Embedding capacity, Processing time, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) Backward method, Forward method

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