The IUP Journal of English Studies
Translation Across the World: Theory and Praxis

Article Details
Pub. Date : March, 2019
Product Name : The IUP Journal of English Studies
Product Type : Article
Product Code : IJES41903
Author Name : Bijay Kumar Das
Availability : YES
Subject/Domain : English Studies
Download Format : PDF Format
No. of Pages : 9



Translation has variously been described as transfer of meaning, substitution of meaning, carry-over of meaning, regulated transformation, etc. If in the West it is attributed to the second fall of man, meaning loss of common language of mankind, in India, it is taken as new writing. It involves both the processes of reading and writing and is a bilingual activity. The safe and sound definition of translation could be new creation in the target language. The best examples could be the different versions of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata in different regional languages of India based on Valmikis The Ramayana and Vyasas The Mahabharata respectively. The major theories of translation are Polysystem theory of translation propounded by Itamar Even-Zohar and Gideon Toury; Canadian feminist theory of translation by Susan Bassnett, Barbara Godard, and others; Deconstructive theory of translation by Jacques Derrida; and Cannibalistic theories by Haroldo de Campos and Augusto de Campos. The praxis of translation helps the cause of nation-building and moves toward the creation of World Literature, transcending the boundaries of a nation.


Translation is an act of rendering a text into another language. It involves both reading and writing in source language and target language respectively. It is a bilingual activity, the origin of which is based on myths. It is presumed that in the beginning, mankind was speaking only one language, as the birds of the species do. But when the Babylonians were building the Tower of Babel, they were utterly confused and one did not understand what the other one was speaking of. Hence, there was the loss of the common language of man, which led to the birth of translation. Translation, in the West, owes its origin to the second fall of man, that is, the loss of a common language. As Pierre Grange (Majumdar 2006, 163) puts it:


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