The IUP Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Frequency Response Analysis - A Condition Monitoring Tool for Transformer Winding: A Review

Article Details
Pub. Date : Jul, 2020
Product Name : The IUP Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Product Type : Article
Product Code : IJEEE20720
Author Name : Mayur V Gojiya* and Ketan P Badgujar
Availability : YES
Subject/Domain : Engineering
Download Format : PDF Format
No. of Pages : 21



Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) is a proven and powerful tool for condition monitoring of transformer winding. It is the most sensitive technique to identify winding movement and checks the integrity of the transformer winding without de-tanking. Nowadays, this method is widely used. The paper discusses the failure modes of transformer, philosophy of FRA, terminal connections, different ways of interpretation of results and online FRA.


The transformer is an essential element of the electrical power system. It is very costly and provides power at different voltage levels with isolation between the circuits. Its catastrophic failure may lead to discontinuity of electrical supply, affect stability of electrical power system and major economic loss. Therefore, condition-based maintenance is advisable for a power transformer. Many methods are practiced to get an idea about the condition of transformer such as insulation resistance test, Tan d test, dissolved gas analysis, furan analysis, degree of polymerization, turn ratio test, Short Circuit Impedance (SCI), Frequency Response Analysis (FRA), dielectric FRA, temperature measurement by thermography, recovery voltage measurement, partial discharge measurement, etc. These methods focus on a particular part (insulation, core winding, bushings and cooling mechanism) of the transformer. Turns ratio test checks open circuit of winding, inter-turn and inter-winding insulation failure; and inspects the performance of tap changer (Xu et al., 2017; and Iwanusiw and Eng, 2018). Insulation resistance test, Tan d test, dissolved gas analysis, furan analysis, transformer oil breakdown test and degree of polymerization verify the dielectric property of insulating material used in transformer (Purwadi et al., 2011). Dielectric FRA and recovery voltage measurement depict moisture content in the dielectric material (Paithankar and Pinto, 2001; Saha et al., 2005; Koch and Prevost, 2012; and Gavrila et al., 2014). Partial discharge measurement confirms discharge through voids in insulating medium (Morshuis and Smit, 2005; and Committee et al., 2009). SCI and FRA methods probe distortion and mechanical displacement of winding.


Frequency Response Analysis (FRA), Axial displacement, Radial deformation, Statistical indices, Online FRA

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