May'2020

Welcome to The IUP Journal of Mechanical Engineering

Focus

From economical, performance and reliability point of view, friction and wear are the most important aspects of viability of mechanical systems. Efforts are being made for development of fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of wear to innovate solutions to practical engineering problems. The first three papers focus on the development of wear-resistant materials, surface modification and the usage of testing and prediction methodology, respectively. In the paper, "Tribological Behavior Analysis of Carbon Nanotubes and Silicon Carbide Reinforced on Aluminum Under the Influence of Controlled Factors", the authors have investigated the tribological behavior of 20% silicon carbide and various weight percentages of multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) reinforced on aluminium through powder metallurgy. The study demonstrated the application of powder metallurgy technique to introduce SiC and CNT in the Al to fabricate MMC. In dry sliding wear condition, % of CNT, load and velocity have more influence on wear and sliding time has less impact. In the paper, "Wear and Friction Control of Plasma Nitrided D2 Steel Using Laser Surface Texturing (LST)", the authors have modified the surface of plasma nitrited AISI D2 steel by laser texturing patterns in order to reduce the wear of dies and molds for cold working operation. The authors have found that the grooves of rhombus and dimple patterns acted as storage spaces for graphite and wear debris and showed enhancement in wear resistance and friction coefficient. In the next paper, "Wear Particle Analysis Using Ferrography", the authors have demonstrated the use of ferrography for monitoring additive elements, wear metals and contaminants in lubricating oils for effective predictive maintenance.

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed into a key indispensable technology in the synthesis, analysis and optimization of various engineering systems and has significantly improved the engineering designs and the methodology of the design process in many industrial applications. In this special issue as well, seven papers have used the FEA tool for various types of analysis and optimization. The adaptive vibration absorber can be used to reduce structural vibrations at multiple frequencies. In the paper, "Design and Parametric Study of Dual Mass Vibration Absorber for Vibration Suppression of Cantilever Beam", the authors have studied the effects of different absorber parameters like length of rod, distance between two rods and mass dimensions on modal frequencies of absorber. Designed absorber is found to be very effective in reducing the vibration of cantilever beam from 440 to 2 by tuning absorber at 53 excitation frequency.

Automotive bumper system plays a very important role in absorbing impact energy and styling. In the paper, "Design and Development of Impact Damper for Vehicle Frontal Safety", the authors have developed the bumper consisting of Belleville spring and pressure relief valve to minimize the impact in order to reduce the fatalities. After comparing the FEA simulation results and physical testing, the authors have recommended the use of composite damper. In the next paper, "Roof Crash Simulation of Passenger Car for Improving Occupant Safety in Cabin", the authors have analyzed the strength of the vehicle roof by changing the strength-to-weight ratio and pushing it at a slow but constant speed. It is found that the modified model with HSS DS 16 DP material is more crashworthy as compared to baseline model with CRCA steel.

Quality, functionality and durability of the product depend on the method of assembly. Snap fits are the simplest, quickest and most effective joints. In the paper, "Design Optimization of Snap Fit Feature of Lock Plate to Reduce Its Installation Force Using DoE Methodology", the authors have varied the geometrical parameters of snap joint component to reduce the assembly efforts. Using FEA angle of the snap, entry width and roundness at the corner have been optimized.

Topology optimization is adopted to obtain optimal structural layout by deleting some part or member of the structure and by preparing a new layout. In the paper, "Topology Optimization of Arms and Hinges of a Combat Vehicle Using FEA", the authors have used Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) technique for topology optimization and have found 42% reduction of the hinge weight, while the weight of the arm is reduced by 22%. In the next paper, "Static Structural Analysis and Topology Optimization of Lower Control Arm for LMV", the authors have applied topology optimization to optimize the design of lower control arm used in independent suspension system. The stress distribution and deformations were used for redesigning using topology optimization and achieved 16.66% weight reduction.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique has been used in the paper, "2D Numerical Simulation of Coal Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) Boiler", to analyze different parameters like solid volume fraction, pressure drop and temperature distribution in CFBC.

Reducing pollutant emissions and improving engine performance of internal combustion engines have been one of the crucial research areas. In the paper, "The Effect of Various Operating Parameters on CI Engine Head Vibration and Performance Characteristics", the authors have optimized the operating parameters for using Jatropha methyl ester and its blend as a fuel in compression ignition engine. Operating parameters such as percentage blend, nozzle geometry, injection pressure, compression ratio and EGR rate are optimized considering its effect on brake power, brake thermal efficiency, integrated thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency, NOx emission, specific fuel consumption and x and y acceleration.

In the last paper, "An Experimental Analysis of Car Air-Conditioning Test Rig Using Microchannel Heat Exchanger with R1234yf", the authors have developed car air-conditioning test rig. The authors have compared the performance of R134a and R1234yf and found that R1234yf refrigerant provides 30% higher performance than R134a. R1234yf can be a substitute for MAC systems without any need for retrofitting the existing systems.

S V Srirama Rao
Consulting Editor

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Article   Price (₹) Buy
Tribological Behavior Analysis of Carbon Nanotubes and Silicon Carbide Reinforced on Aluminum Under the Influence of Controlled Factors
50
Wear and Friction Control of Plasma Nitrided D2 Steel Using Laser Surface Texturing (LST)
50
Wear Particle Analysis Using Ferrography
50
Design and Parametric Study of Dual Mass Vibration Absorber for Vibration Suppression of Cantilever Beam
50
Design and Development of Impact Damper for Vehicle Frontal Safety
50
Roof Crash Simulation of Passenger Car for Improving Occupant Safety in Cabin
50
Design Optimization of Snap Fit Feature of Lock Plate to Reduce Its Installation Force Using DoE Methodology
50
Topology Optimization of Arms and Hinges of a Combat Vehicle Using FEA
50
Static Structural Analysis and Topology Optimization of Lower Control Arm for LMV
50
2D Numerical Simulation of Coal Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) Boiler
50
The Effect of Various Operating Parameters on CI Engine Head Vibration and Performance Characteristics
50
An Experimental Analysis of Car Air-Conditioning Test Rig using Microchannel Heat Exchanger with R1234yf
50
     
Contents : (May' 2020)

Tribological Behavior Analysis of Carbon Nanotubes and Silicon Carbide Reinforced on Aluminum Under the Influence of Controlled Factors
Indrasen D Ghodke, Rahul D Jadhav and M G Qaimi

The paper interprets the tribological behavior of 20% silicon carbide and various weight percentages of multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) reinforced on aluminum through powder metallurgy. The hardness testing was done on Brinell hardness tester. The sliding wear tests without lubrication were carried out on fabricated composites utilizing 'pin-on-disc' tribometer equipment under variation in sliding velocity, applied load, sliding time and CNT weight percentage. Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array was used for Design of Experiments (DOE), and analytical modeling of fabricated composites was done. The result was converted into Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratios. ANOVA was used to determine the decisive design parameters considerably influencing the wear rate of the composite material. A regression equation created a relationship between decisive parameter generated from ANOVA model. In order to demonstrate regression equation, validation wear behavior study was conducted. The error involved in between investigated value from experiment and predicted values of the regression analysis for fabricated composites was around 9.0%. The results indicate that for dry sliding wear analysis, CNT, load, sliding time and sliding velocity have great effects on wear behavior of composites.


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Wear and Friction Control of Plasma Nitrided D2 Steel Using Laser Surface Texturing (LST)
Nikhil P More and S S Lakade

The tribological properties of plasma nitrided D2 steel using Laser Surface Texturing (LST) and dry lubrication were determined on pin-on-disc tribometer. Tests were conducted at room temperature with alumina pin (99.99% pure) and D2 steel plate High Carbon High Chromium Steel (HCHCr) with various laser textures such as dimple, asterisk and cross grooves, and graphite as a solid lubricant. The use of LST and graphite showed good tribological properties. Wear and friction reduced up to 90%.


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Wear Particle Analysis Using Ferrography
Yogita N Patil and R R Navthar

The application of wear particle analysis and ferrography in particular is an effective means to identify and respond to the maintenance needs of bike engine. The wear particles contained in used lubricant oil samples are collected from the engine and gearbox of a Hero Honda Splendor bike. Ferrographic and elemental analyses have been employed to determine the general information about the vehicle performance. The analyzed information throws light on the physical condition of used oil, and the wear condition of the parts from gearbox and main engine.


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Design and Parametric Study of Dual Mass Vibration Absorber for Vibration Suppression of Cantilever Beam
Sanjivani M Pujari and V B Rajmane

The paper considers the design of dual mass dynamic vibration absorber. This design incorporates use of two concentrated masses, which are cantilevered from two rods. The adaptive vibration absorber can be used to reduce structural vibrations at multiple frequencies. Adaptive solution is achieved by moving masses along the length of rod either inside or outside, producing changing natural frequency for absorber device. The effects of different absorber parameters like length of rod, distance between two rods and mass dimensions on modal frequencies of absorber are also discussed. Analysis of dual mass absorber is done theoretically and using finite element analysis. Its effectiveness is checked on cantilever beam. Analytical and finite element models are described. The results showed that the absorber is effective in cantilever beam vibration reduction up to 95%.


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Design and Development of Impact Damper for Vehicle Frontal Safety
Subir Agrahari and Nitin S Bagal

The paper interprets the tribological behavior of 20% silicon carbide and various weight percentages of multiwall Carbon Vehicle overspeeding on highways is one of the major problems faced in the current scenario of Indian traffic. The issue of overspeeding not only damages the vehicle but also there is a chance of losing precious life. In real-life scenario, accidents are unavoidable. We can only have countermeasures to prevent them and avoid the fatalities involved. Safety impact guard is one of the real-time countermeasures, which reduces the impact when the vehicle is involved in high-speed impact. The paper proposes a design of a reusable safety impact damper with pressure relief valve. This design discusses the force of energy or impact that is dampened due to the action of the impact damper with the pressure relief valve. The aim of the paper is to reduce the fatalities by designing an impact damper which provides safety against the front and rear end collisions.


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Roof Crash Simulation of Passenger Car for Improving Occupant Safety in Cabin
Yogesh Vyavahare, Ganesh E Kondhalkar and Ashish Pawar

Thousands of people are killed every year in rollovers. The best way to prevent these deaths is to keep vehicles from rolling over in the first place. Electronic stability control is significantly reducing rollovers, especially fatal single-vehicle ones. When vehicles do roll, side curtain airbags help protect people inside, and belt use is essential. However, for these safety technologies to be most effective, the roof must be able to maintain the occupant survival space when it hits the ground during rollover. Stronger roofs crush less, reducing the risk that people will be injured by contact with the roof itself. Stronger roofs also can prevent occupants, especially those who are not using safety belts, from being ejected through windows, windshields or doors that have broken or opened because the roof has deformed. In this paper, the strength of the roof is determined by pushing a metal plate against one side of it at a slow but constant speed. The force applied relative to the vehicle's weight is known as the strength-to-weight ratio. This ratio varied as the test progressed. The peak strength-to-weight ratio recorded at any time before the roof is crushed 5 inches is the key measurement of roof strength.


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Design Optimization of Snap Fit Feature of Lock Plate to Reduce Its Installation Force Using DoE Methodology
Hrishikesh S Kakade, F B Sayyad and Vinod G Patil

Snap fit joints are widely used in industry for assembling different parts. Snap fits are the simplest, quickest and most effective joints, provided they are designed with the requisite dimensions and parameters. In the present study, many parameters affecting the assembly process of snap fit joints are studied. For this purpose, we have used the Design of Experiments (DoE) method, which has provided the statistical approach and led to a reliable and significant interpretation of different parameters of snap fit joint responsible for high installation force in the assembly process. The design modifications of snap fit joint have been carried out by identifying and establishing the relation between the parameters. The modified design of snap fit joint has ensured that the installation force of assembly process is within the human ergonomic limit.


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Topology Optimization of Arms and Hinges of a Combat Vehicle Using FEA
D S Ugalmugale, N R Patel and R R Navthar

The paper presents the methodology and case study for structural weight optimization of hinges and arms of ramp door assembly of a combat vehicle using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Weight reduction of hinges and arms of existing ramp door assembly is achieved by optimal material distribution using density method of topology optimization technique. The paper discusses topology optimization parameters to reduce the weight of the existing components without compromising required stiffness and strength requirements. Defining minimum compliance and mass as objective functions, the study highlights problem formulation by defining design and non-design volume for topology optimization using Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) technique. As an outcome, optimal material design of hinge and arm is achieved, which is converted into feasible lightweight design considering manufacturing constraints. These lightweight designs are validated for their structural strength using FEA. Existing and optimized designs are compared for weight, stiffness and strength parameters.


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Static Structural Analysis and Topology Optimization of Lower Control Arm for LMV
Subodh V Yende and D H Burande

Lower control arm is used in front of independent suspension system. It is connected between subframe and knuckle. It holds the vehicle wheels in alignment and forms the unsprung mass of vehicle. High unsprung weight complicates steering control and traction control issues. The paper deals with the reduction of unsprung mass of vehicle by topology optimization of lower control arm. For the analysis, existing lower control arm of Mac-Pherson suspension system is selected. CAD modeling is done using CATIA software. ANSYS software is used for static structural analysis of existing model by applying the required loading and boundary conditions. On the basis of the stress developed, topology optimization is carried out by removing excess material from CAD model. Lower control arm is redesigned and analyzed for stress distribution and deformation. Total reduction of weight in the existing model is found to be 16.66%.


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2D Numerical Simulation of Coal Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) Boiler
Anubhav P Jundre and P A Deshmukh

Nowadays, fluidized bed is a well-known clean technology. It is used for many applications in thermal and chemical industries such as combustion and incineration, boiler, carbonization and gasification, calcination and refineries. Coal is an old and widely used fuel in thermal power plants for generation of electricity. To reduce pollution and uniform temperature distribution across furnace, fluidized bed combustion is very effective. Physically, multiphase fluidization and coal combustion are very complex to understand analytically and experimentally. In this paper, different parameters like solid volume fraction, pressure drop and temperature distribution are analyzed with the help of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique. The governing equation and different approaches used for multiphase fluidization and coal combustion are analyzed. The main objective of this study is to analyze fluidization behavior across Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) boiler where 2D industrial scale boiler geometry is used.


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The Effect of Various Operating Parameters on CI Engine Head Vibration and Performance Characteristics
Pramod B Dhaigude and Nitin D Gadhave

The paper optimizes the operating parameters using Jatropha methyl ester and its blend as a fuel in compression ignition engine. Orthogonal array L16 is selected for experiment with five operating parameters and four levels each. Operating parameters such as %blend, nozzle geometry, injection pressure, compression ratio and EGR rate are optimized. From this analysis, it is observed that the engine gives better performance for optimum combination of operating parameters and found to be for 100% load as: 10% and 40% blend, 3 hole and 5 hole nozzle geometry, 210 bar injection pressure, 15:1 and 16:1 compression ratio and 4% and 12% EGR rate. It is also concluded that with the usage of diesel fuel in this engine, vibration severity increases as compared Jatropha biodiesel and its blend as fuel. Also, it is found that acceleration (vibration) is mostly affected by injection pressure and nozzle geometry under full load condition. The experimental conformation test also revealed that regression analysis technique is suitable for optimization.


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An Experimental Analysis of Car Air-Conditioning Test Rig using Microchannel Heat Exchanger with R1234yf
Samiksha Dhokale, P G Anjankar and S S Lakade

In this 21st century, scientific enterprise has a driving force known as safety value and care value for environment; researchers are striving to fulfill these values. Policies like the Montreal Protocol and the EU Directives incentivize this research. The feasibility of R1234yf is introduced in car air conditioner application. This is an experimental study on car air conditioning system with drop in substitute R1234yf for R134a. For the experimental study, a test rig was developed, in which actual car conditions were simulated. Performance parameters like work input to the compressor, coefficient of performance, refrigerating capacity and overall heat transfer coefficient were taken into consideration.


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