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Routing Issues and Related Routing Protocols
in VANETs: A Review
--Ritu Sehgal, Vijay Nehra and Pawan Dahiya
As the technology is advancing every day, the networking process is also changing to provide comfort to the users. The last few decades witnessed the emergence of research industry to provide such applications to the users during driving, and for this purpose, a new adhoc network came into existence, viz., Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET). This is a kind of networking between different vehicles running on the road and creates a connection between nearby vehicles to exchange the information between them. Earlier researches on VANET considered only a single type of routing protocol, viz., topology-based routing protocols, but this type of protocols was not suitable for VANETs, resulting in the introduction of different types of routing protocols. The list of the routing protocols for VANET is quite large and different authors have categorized these protocols in different ways. To start working in this field requires understanding of a majority of these protocols. Moreover, routing protocols designed for VANETs cannot be directly implemented in vehicles before verification and validation. So keeping the above things in mind, the paper provides an insight into the routing techniques adopted by the VANETs, their classification based on different factors, and the pros and cons of different types of routing protocols for VANETs.
Nowadays, the world runs on information. Information is nothing but solutions or answers to different types of queries. It is composed of well-defined data and operations. The information has led to the rise of knowledge and this knowledge has great potential to make or destroy nations. There are practically two sets of information—general purpose information such as this is year 2018 and sensitive information such as the nuclear codes of a country. There is no need to protect the general purpose information, but just imagine that one nation gets hold of the nuclear launch codes of another country; it can wreak havocs. With the development and advancement in the field of technology, there is a need to protect vulnerable information. This is where the Information Security or InfoSec answers the call. These are a set of methods used to protect valuable information as most of them reside over the interconnected systems of computer networks. It has a lot of positive aspects such as mobility and portability,, but also since everything is connected, there are ways to access other systems and steal or alter the information. This is called hacking and people involved in these works are termed as hackers. Thus, to protect the information, various methods have been proposed, and this paper studies some of the methods and their working principles.
Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.
The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.
The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.