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Welcome to The IUP Journal of International Relations
ISSN: 0973-8509
A ‘peer reviewed’ journal distributed by EBSCO and Proquest Database

July'18

Previous Issues

The IUP Journal of International Relations provides informative, insightful, and lively discourse on the latest developments in an ever-changing and increasingly complex world order. The Journal serves as a forum for thought-provoking debate on the most contentious contemporary issues in World Politics. The Journal is dedicated to the stimulation and dissemination of research and scholarship in international affairs.

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Indo-Pacific and the Emerging Maritime Geopolitics: Contending Sino-Indian Strategic Interests
PASOK: The Peculiar Greek Social Democracy
Canada’s Role in the Arab-Israel Peace Process Through the United Nations and Beyond
Funding Palestinian NGOs: A Trojan Horse Against Liberation?
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Contents
(July 2018)

Indo-Pacific and the Emerging Maritime Geopolitics: Contending Sino-Indian Strategic Interests

--Parvaiz Ahmad Thoker and Hilal Ramzan

The much chanted 21st century as an Asian century has been largely dependent upon the effective and practical collaboration amongst the two Asian Giants—China and India. However, due to their overlapping strategic interests, the elements of confrontation amongst the two rising giants of Asia are more apparent than those of cooperation. It is in this backdrop that both the powers recurrently act contrary to each other. Accordingly, the vast Indo-Pacific region has become an epicenter of Sino-India maritime rivalry with China’s rising influence and India’s growing strategic presence in the region. Given China’s strategic engagements in India’s backyard, New Delhi’s geostrategic interests in the Indo-Pacific are at stake. China has enhanced its military and other commercial activities along the sea lines of communication in the IOR mostly to constrain India’s strategic maneuvering. As China’s “String of Pearls” strategy and the “Maritime Silk Route” initiative have been intended to encircle India and thereby restrict its strategic outreach in the IOR, it is, therefore, obvious for India to boost its collaboration with other major powers, especially with the US to counter the Chinese strategic designs. Through this study, a sincere effort has been made to analyze the evolving maritime geopolitics in the Indo-Pacific region amid Sino-India competition and contention for the acquisition of maritime preponderance. Further, the study also focuses on India’s counteractive measures against China’s maritime maneuvers and naval tactics.

PASOK: The Peculiar Greek Social Democracy

--Emmanouil Mavrozacharakis, Stylianos IoannisTzagkarakis and Ilias Pappas

The Greek social democrats have been on a recovery path since 2012 when the biggest crisis of their history began. After the successful formation in 1974, the Pan-Hellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) experienced a spectacular rise and for four decades it decisively influenced the prevailing Greek politics. For a long time, PASOK had the broad support of the majority of socioeconomic groups and along with the conservative New Democracy (ND) defined Greece’s path to the democratization and Europeanization era. The multidimensional crisis which Greece had entered after the onset of the international economic crisis in 2007 had a drastic impact on the political landscape. In the dual parliamentary elections on May 6 and June 17, 2012, PASOK received 12-13% of the votes, only three years after it had received 44%. In 2015, PASOK received the worst electoral percentage in its history, namely, 4.6%. This decisive defeat was expected for a long time, but no one predicted its dramatic size. In any case, PASOK has clearly lost its earlier influence and entered a long period of resignation and disorientation. This study focuses on the specificities of PASOK in comparison with the social democratic parties of Western Europe.

Canada’s Role in the Arab-Israel Peace Process Through the United Nations and Beyond

--Kamaran M K Mondal

Initially, Canada had no interest, economically or militarily, in the faraway Arab-Israel region, in particular or in the Middle East, in general. However, post-Second World War, participation in the United Nations had drawn Canada into the Arab-Israel conflict, closely and emotionally. Notwithstanding its traditional position and consistent support for the State of Israel, Canada has been one of the few states that took a position in support of comprehensive peace in the Arab-Israel conflict. Its principal contribution to the Arab-Israel peace process has been in the form of Canada holding the Chair of the Refugee Working Group (RWG)—a group that was created as part of the broad multilateral Middle East Peace Process (MEPP) in the 1990s. This study has made a modest effort to describe and analyze, using historical and comparative methods, Canada’s diplomatic engagements with the Arab-Israel conflict and the various peace processes through the United Nations as well as multilateral peace mechanisms.

Funding Palestinian NGOs: A Trojan Horse Against Liberation?

--Osayd Awawda

The Palestinian NGOs (PNGOs) have played a significant role in developing various aspects of Palestine’s national welfare. After 1948, another duty was added on to the PNGOs, which is resisting Israeli occupation both directly and indirectly. In that process, PNGOs could not finance themselves because of the economic damages of the Israeli occupation. As a result, PNGOs relied on foreign support, from Arab organizations and non-Arab organizations. In particular, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and European Union (EU) were the biggest funders for the PNGOs. In fact, USAID and EU are still the primary funders for the Palestinian Authority (PA), that emerged from signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993. The author argues that conditional funding prevents PNGOs from supporting the exercise of the right of self-determination. Moreover, it marginalizes the PNGOs from the political sphere. Both these are effected by inserting anti-terrorism clauses by the funders in the funding contracts.

 

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Automated Teller Machines (ATMs): The Changing Face of Banking in India

Bank Management
Information and communication technology has changed the way in which banks provide services to its customers. These days the customers are able to perform their routine banking transactions without even entering the bank premises. ATM is one such development in recent years, which provides remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the development of this self-service banking in India based on the secondary data.

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is playing a very important role in the progress and advancement in almost all walks of life. The deregulated environment has provided an opportunity to restructure the means and methods of delivery of services in many areas, including the banking sector. The ICT has been a focused issue in the past two decades in Indian banking. In fact, ICTs are enabling the banks to change the way in which they are functioning. Improved customer service has become very important for the very survival and growth of banking sector in the reforms era. The technological advancements, deregulations, and intense competition due to the entry of private sector and foreign banks have altered the face of banking from one of mere intermediation to one of provider of quick, efficient and customer-friendly services. With the introduction and adoption of ICT in the banking sector, the customers are fast moving away from the traditional branch banking system to the convenient and comfort of virtual banking. The most important virtual banking services are phone banking, mobile banking, Internet banking and ATM banking. These electronic channels have enhanced the delivery of banking services accurately and efficiently to the customers. The ATMs are an important part of a bank’s alternative channel to reach the customers, to showcase products and services and to create brand awareness. This is reflected in the increase in the number of ATMs all over the world. ATM is one of the most widely used remote banking services all over the world, including India. This paper analyzes the growth of ATMs of different bank groups in India.
International Scenario

If ATMs are largely available over geographically dispersed areas, the benefit from using an ATM will increase as customers will be able to access their bank accounts from any geographic location. This would imply that the value of an ATM network increases with the number of available ATM locations, and the value of a bank network to a customer will be determined in part by the final network size of the banking system. The statistical information on the growth of branches and ATM network in select countries.

Indian Scenario

The financial services industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth, diversification and specialization since the initiation of financial sector reforms in 1991. Greater customer orientation is the only way to retain customer loyalty and withstand competition in the liberalized world. In a market-driven strategy of development, customer preference is of paramount importance in any economy. Gone are the days when customers used to come to the doorsteps of banks. Now the banks are required to chase the customers; only those banks which are customercentric and extremely focused on the needs of their clients can succeed in their business today.

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